Using a mask of ffff. The otv-isis is the control protocol for OTV. All other MAC addresses are allowed. For client-server flows optimization inbound direction , an additional level of intelligence is required to provide information on which specific location the service is available and avoid a sub-optimal traffic path across the L2 connection established between sites. As previously mentioned, this may cause an asymmetric traffic path that would break once stateful devices FW, load balancers, etc. If only FHRP isolation is used, this will be the case, therefore an additional optimization must be used.
The specific approach validated and discussed in this document to optimize the inbound client to server traffic flows is DNS based and leverage the following components:.
Once the configuration above is completed, the GSS device must be activated. This is done from the primary GSSM. After you log in to the CLI and enable privileged EXEC mode, you enter the gslb command to access the global server load-balancing configuration mode. From this mode, you must activate the GSS using the gss-device activate command. The answer vip configuration lines determine which answer the GSS will respond with when queried.
As can be seen here, one is active and the other is suspended. The active entry is the one the GSS will respond with. The manual-reactivation disable command ensures the GSS automatically reverts to using the active answer when it returns to an online state. A separate ACE is deployed in each data center site.
Since the intent was not to test the load balancing aspect of the ACE module, the 8 server farms are configured with one VM per server farm. There is also one VIP per server farm as mentioned in the design guide document. The external VIP address for server 1 is 8. The internal address of the VM is When the ACE receives traffic destined to the external address, it will change the destination address to the internal address based on the policy-maps defined for the type of traffic that you want to be handled by the ACE. The service-policy is used on the client to server traffic so that the VIP addressing can be taken care of in the ACE.
The VIP address needs to be different so a more direct path can be established to the site, avoiding the sub-optimal path across the DCI connection. In the example below is highlighted the change that needs to be made in the VIP configuration. The remainder of the configuration in the DC1 example is the same. A port-channel and static route, just as in DC1, are similarly configured.
In the example below, The default load balancing method for the ACE is src-dest-port. To simplify the flows for troubleshooting purposes, the method was changed to src-dest-ip. This matches the method on the Nexus This is accomplished by configuring an alarm for each VM to be triggered once the vMotion completes in vCenter. Starting on the alarms tab definitions view for the VM in vCenter, right click in the window and select New Alarm. In the alarm settings dialog box on the general tab, type an alarm name and select alarm type Monitor for specific events occurring on this object.
Click the Triggers tab and add a trigger. Click twice on the event name and a drop down box will appear. Change the event to VM migrated. When configuring the triggers under the alarms settings, for the VM migrated event, you should configure the status to Unset. Without this setting, the event will not be triggered on a second migration, unless the user acknowledges the first alarm.
Since each alarm has to be directional, we must configure an advanced condition for the source host name, ie the ESXi host the VM is moving from. Click the Advanced link on the condition column to bring up the Trigger Conditions dialog box. Add a trigger condition and select Source host name and put in the ESXi host name the VM will be on when it starts the vMotion process.
Next the action must be configured. Click the Actions tab and then add an action. Using the dropdown, change the action to Run a command. When the alarm is triggered, the action run a command is initiated on the vCenter machine. The command configuration is a local command file on the vCenter. This was required because the command call in vCenter does not allow parameters to be passed to the script being called.
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Therefore a specific command file is required for each VM and direction. The command file is located in a directory on the vCenter server and contains a call to the tclsh application to read and evaluate the TCL script to change which VIP address is active in the GSS.
The TCL script is also located on the vCenter server. The TCL script accepts the arguments of vmName and data center. The data center argument is used to specify direction of the move. The script can be changed to handle multiple VM servers. Only 2 servers are shown in the example for simplicity. Server virtualization decouples applications deployment from physical server purchases.
When servers are configured into virtualization pools, a data center becomes a dynamic entity in which resources are used efficiently, and the allocation of virtual machines to physical servers can be adjusted dynamically to best balance efficiency and performance. And when these virtual machines need to be moved, network persistence, security and storage compliance need to be considered.
The applications servers used in the testing were deployed across multiple ESXi hosts in the data center. VM server pairs and were configured in a 2-tier model. When the client requests a file from server 1, it would need to use the CIFS file-share to get the actual file on server 2 and then send the file to the client. The same setup was used for servers 3 and 4. VM Servers 5 thru 8 were deployed in a single tier model. VM servers 5 and 6 were configured as FTP servers. The same was true for DC2 to DC1 operations as well.
The VMs were deployed between the 20 ESX servers and were not directly used for the workload mobility tests. Nexus V allows the policy configuration to move with a virtual machine during live migration, ensuring persistent network, security, and storage compliance, resulting in improved business continuance, performance management, and security compliance.
Another goal of the testing is to allow the deployment of the Nexus V Distributed Virtual Switch DVS in a stretched fashion between physical data center sites. This can be achieved independently from the specific ESXi cluster deployment. The Nexus V is deployed in a stretched fashion between the physical data centers.
When deploying the VSMs, it is required that the active and standby VSM be deployed into the same physical data center. It is also recommended to deploy them on separate ESXi hosts, to enhance the redundancy. To configure the Nexus V into L3 transport mode, the svs mode must be set to L3 under the svs-domain. The control and packet VLAN that is configured under the svs-domain is then ignored. Once configured, the system creates a control0 interface. It needs to be on one of the l3 control VLANs described later in this section.
Since there are 2 data centers, you need 2 separate VLANs trunked on the system uplink ports for this purpose. On the port profiles of these VLANs, you must configure capability l3control. This informs the Nexus V which profile to use for L3 control traffic. You must also configure system vlan under these port profiles as well. This is to allow these virtual machines network connectivity once the vMotion process is completed, in the case of a VSM migration event.
The interfaces part of the "VM Uplink" port profile is configured as part of a port-channel. The interesting point is that each virtual interface part of this bundle is actually connected to an independent upstream Fabric Interconnect device. To configure the Nexus V, the mac-pinning option should be used on the channel-group configuration.
Refer to the following example. Another aspect of the workload mobility use case is the ability of the Nexus V to move the port profiles when the VMs are moved from one data center to another. Comparing the configuration before and after the moves, we are able to see that the port profiles are moved, including any of the features enabled on them. To determine which virtual ethernet interface is assigned to which VM, use the show interface virtual command. The module number 5 was assigned to This output verifies that the features enabled on this port profile govern the server attached to vethernet One of the features tested was private-vlans.
Using the show vlan private-vlan command, it is shown that vethernet 10 is using isolated.
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Once the workload mobility has completed, notice that vethernet 10 is now located on module 9. Module 9 is what was assigned to Checking the show port-profile command once again, verify that vethernet 10 is still associated. Verifying the show vlan private-vlan command, it is shown that vethernet 10 is still using isolated. During testing with port-security configured on the Nexus V, there were occasional problems with traffic being blocked after a vMotion on some of the Microsoft Windows servers. It was found that on occasion, the Windows server would report the incorrect MAC address to the Nexus V in the form of MACA as seen in this example:.
Notice how the last section is the same as the "real" MAC address. Because the default port-security max secure address list is set to 1, the Nexus V does not allow the "real" MAC address to register itself in the secure address list after the bogus one already has registered. After this occurs, that Windows server cannot communicate with the outside world thus interrupting traffic. A defect CSCto points to a possible problem with the Windows driver in conjunction with the E network adapter used on the VMs.
The problem is mostly sporadic; the defect mentioned numerous power cycles before the issue could be reproduced. To alleviate this issue in testing, the number of allowed port-security MAC addresses was raised to 2. The Cisco Unified Computing System UCS allows for the establishment of a server farm architecture that enables system resources to be allocated dynamically and flexibly to meet individual virtual machine requirements within a common, consistent resource pool.
The Fabric Interconnect devices are deployed in end-host mode, which represents the recommended option when compared to the switch mode of operation. The is connected to the pair of Nexus using a vPC configuration. This provides load balancing and redundancy from the to the rest of the network. Initially the topology was configured to have one interface from the to the management network and another interface the test topology. While testing, however, it was noticed that some MAC addresses were not being learned on the Nexus V. It was determined that the topology configuration was creating a disjointed L2 domain.
In the tested release of code 4. This interface is configured on a VLAN that is also extended between the data centers. The features presented by each host are determined by selecting a predefined EVC baseline. However, some of these hosts were not compatible with the EVC baseline. During testing, a script was used to schedule the workload mobility events in vCenter.
After the daylight savings time change, we noticed that the scheduling was off by about 1 hour.
UTC does not have daylight savings advancements, so after the DST change; scheduled tasks run one hour earlier or later. Traffic flows from the Nexus to the via the port channel Po between them. This traffic is tagged with a specific identifier tag assigned by the UCS manager to each vNIC deployed on the Cisco virtualization adapter. VNMC uses security profiles for template-based configuration of security policies. A security profile is a collection of security policies that can be predefined and applied on an on-demand basis at the time of virtual machine instantiation.
The VNMC should be deployed in the management area of the data center, typically where the vCenter Servers are deployed. If either option is not configured, the deployment settings do get validated and the VM gets deployed but the VM will fail to power up with the error message as to "hostname not configured" or "Domain name not configured".
The only workaround is to delete the VM and redeploy. This issue has been resolved in VNMC version 1. However, there is no requirement for a special system VLAN to be used. There is also no special consideration in regards to separate or stretched ESXi cluster models. What's Disrupting Education and Healthcare?
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