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Only the next time, the consequences could be far worse. Russia rushed in at the endgame to make a dramatic gesture of deploying its share of the peacekeeping force into Kosovo. Three immediate implications for Russian military planners suggest themselves. Tactical flexibility will be a necessary condition for the accomplishment of battlefield objectives that would otherwise remain at risk. Soviet operations in the Great Patriotic War were designed for a command and control system that maximized the flexibility of operational and strategic commanders, at the expense of very restrictive guidelines for tactical commanders in the Soviet ground forces, division or lower.

Third, offensive and defensive information warfare, including both information-supported military operations and information-based psychological warfare against enemy societies, moves to the head of the lecture circuit among topics in the armed forces general staff syllabus. Russia has now seen the United States fight four wars or multinational peace operations based more or less on information superiority: Operation Desert Storm in ; Kosovo in ; Afghanistan in ; and Iraq, in Although armed forces are frequently studied from the perspectives of their military doctrine or combat tactics, they are less frequently analyzed as holistic institutions subject to periods of institutional steadiness or stress.

Beyond a certain point, incremental adaptation to a radically different environment is no longer possible: the organization must change its institutional ethos or cease to function with the same set of role perceptions. It can continue as an organization but not as the same institution it once was. In the judgment of some leading post-Soviet Russian commanders, Russia had no option but to adapt to this information-based military template:.

Moreover, the primary targets in the course of the conflict were clearly specified: key installations of the economic infrastructure, elements of the state and military command and control system, and lines of transportation. The diffusion of the appropriate portable and desktop workstations and information bases throughout the Russian armed forces chain of command must certainly affect everything else that armed forces do. There is a curvilinear relationship between the ability of communications and electronics technology to augment combat effectiveness and the eventual and additional vulnerability that this technology establishes, once forces have become dependent on it.

A particular concern for the Russian armed forces would be the danger of having tactical units isolated and cut off from one another. Such an outcome is not inconceivable to Soviet military planners; it happened to them in the week following 22 June The U. The first side to lose its command, control and communications may also lose its combat stability and thus, its ability to fight a war with small unit cohesion and combat system interdependence. If, for example, the tactical air or air defense component of a modern ground force can be electronically isolated from the remainder of the force, then the remnants of that force can be swallowed up at the discretion of the opponent.

Future generations of war-winning strategies below the threshold of nuclear escalation may have to rely on the 'implosion' of the opponent's command and control system and the subsequent collapse of the opponent's ability to coordinate the use of formations of various sizes and composition. However, Russian military planners might reasonably assume that the initial period of war can be one of great danger. What seems politically absurd in a day and age of U.

Russian and Soviet historical experience so dictates. As the authoritative strategic assessment group Stratfor noted in April, The Russians can conceive of it. They remember that Germany in was crippled. By it was overwhelmingly powerful. Six years is not very long, and while such an evolution is unlikely now, from the Russian point of view, it must be taken seriously in the long run — planning for the worst and hoping for the best.

Russian intelligence will place equally high importance on the detection of enemy political decision to attack strategic warning as on the acquisition of order-of-battle data and other information essential for response to tactical warning. In this regard, the U. Reaching agreement on the reduction or elimination of European non-strategic nuclear weapons may present both domestic and foreign policy difficulties.

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The Russian government attitude toward TNW appears to represent a complex mix of domestic and bureaucratic politics, mis perceptions, and idiosyncrasies. Russia is threatened neither primarily nor immediately by NATO. Preparedness for these contingencies of limited and local wars, regular and irregular, will require a smaller, more professional and more mobile military than post-Soviet Russia has fielded hitherto As Lilia Shevtsova has explained, the primary objective of the Russian system domestically is to preserve the monopoly of power held by the ruling elite.

As she explains, Russian foreign and security policies have to pursue apparently contradictory paths:. Of course, whether domestic or international influences act as independent or interdependent variables is highly situational. Grateful acknowledgment is made to Stephen J. Blank, David M. Glantz, Dale R. Kipp, and Timothy L. Thomas for insights into this topic, and appreciation is also extended to Elisabeth Sieca-Kozlowski for editorial suggestions.

They bear no responsibility for any arguments or opinions stated hererin. Ivanov, Nachal'nyi period voiny: po opytu pervykh kampanii I operatsii vtoroi mirovoi voiny , Moscow: Voenizdat, Rostunov Ed. I, Moscow: Nauka, , Ch. See, for example Lt. See also A. Grechko, et. For an appraisal of Soviet threat assessment between the two world wars, see J. May Ed.

The scale of strategic operations increased accordingly. See B. Panov, V. Kiselev, I. Kartavtsev, et. David M. For a discussion, see Ch. On the impact of nuclear weapons on Soviet military thought, see D. Nekrich, 22 Iiunia, Moscow, Nauka, , in V. Petrov Ed. This source also contains excerpts from debates among Soviet military historians about the responsibility for Barbarossa.

Muslims, high technology, and the Soviet military - Persée

Erickson, The Soviet High Command. Martin's Press, , pp. See also M. Svechin, Strategiia, Moscow, Voyenizdat, , esp. I gratefully acknowledge Sally Stoecker for helpful insights here. Wohlstctter and R. Carter, J. Steinbruner and Ch. Zraket Eds. For counterarguments, see R. For other cases and theory, see Klaus Knorr and Patrick M. Morgan Eds. Lebow finds significant number of historical cases in which a state's commitment was challenged by another on the assumption that the first state would yield, an assumption which flew in the face of a great deal of information to the contrary.

Gareev, M. Kokoshin and V. Martin's Press, , and M. Kir'ian Ed. Blank and R. Weitz, Eds. Army War College, July , pp. See also: N. He is not responsible for its application here.

Cimbala and S. Waldman, Eds. Blank, Threats to Russian Security , op. Dee, , pp.

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For comparative perspective, see J. Blank, Ed. Army War College, November , pp. Army War College, June , pp. See D. Se also: A. Cohen and R. Army War College, June , and R. Army War College, June Stephen J. A humanities journal specialised in armed forces and military structures in post-Soviet societies. Health insurance. Money Deals. The Independent Books. Voucher Codes. Just Eat. National Trust. Premium Articles. Subscription offers. Subscription sign in.

Read latest edition. UK Edition. US Edition. Log in using your social network account. Please enter a valid password. Keep me logged in. Try Independent Premium free for 1 month See the options. Voices Vladimir Putin is positioning himself as the main player in the Middle East It would be Russia who does the rebuilding of Syria after the war and Saudi Arabia who paid for it. Shape Created with Sketch.

World news in pictures Show all An anti-government protester sets a fire during a rally outside the Mong Kok police station in Hong Kong. The All Blacks secured a victory over their rivals. Thousands of school students and protesters gather in The Domain ahead of a climate strike rally in Sydney. Millions of people around the world are taking part in protests demanding action on climate issues.

A pedestrian walks by an advertising installation for the Japan Rugby World Cup in Oita, on the eve of the start of the tournament. A moto-taxi driver takes two passengers past a burning barricade set up by people protesting fuel shortages in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. People paddle on a stand-up board during sunrise in a beach in Larnaca, Cyprus. Mugabe died in Singapore on September 6 at the age of He left Zimbabwe deeply divided over his legacy with his country still struggling with high inflation and shortages of goods after decades of crisis.

Rescue workers on a boat rescue a person stranded inside a flooded tunnel after heavy floods in Pilar de la Horadada, Spain. Police officers try to control the crowd after members of the public were invited to view Robert Mugabe's body as it lies in state at the Rufaro stadium in Harare, Zimbabwe. It is the 18th anniversary of the attacks. Local actors dressed as ancient warriors re-enact a scene from the 7th century battle of Kerbala during a ceremony marking Ashura in Iraq. A firefighter assesses the fire spreading across land on Long Gully Road in the town of Drake, Australia.

A number of homes have been destroyed by bushfires in New South Wales and Queensland. The hurricane hit the island chain as a category 5 storm and battered them for two days before moving north. An artist performs on Tverskaya street during celebrations marking the nd anniversary of the city of Moscow.

Children play football next to a defaced portrait of Former Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe in Harare on the day he died, aged The former leader was forced to resign in , after a year rule, whose early promise was eroded by economic turmoil, disputed elections and human rights violations, has died. Authorities work at the scene of a train crash in Yokohama, south of Tokyo. According to media reports, more than 30 people were injured after a train hit a track at a crossing.

A police office removes burning tires from the road, as protesters set up fires to block traffic along Airport Road in Abuja, Nigeria. A riot police officer throws a teargas canister as looters make off with goods from a store in Germiston, east of Johannesburg, South Africa. Police had earlier fired rubber bullets as they struggled to stop looters who targeted businesses as unrest broke out in several spots in and around the city.

A boat off the island of Santa Cruz in California burns in the early hours of Monday morning. More than 30 people were on board the boat, which is thought to have been on a three-day diving trip. Flowers are laid in a hole in a wall as people gather in the gym of a school, the scene of the hostage crisis, in memory of victims on the fifteenth anniversary of the tragedy in Beslan, North Ossetia region, Russia.

More than people, including children, died as a result of the terrorist attack at the school. A migrant forces his way into the Spanish territory of Ceuta. Over migrants made their way into Ceuta after storming a barbed-wire border fence with Morocco. Although the four-day expo is primarily dog oriented it features a wide array of stalls catering to pet owners' needs as well as showcasing a variety of animals including reptiles, birds, ferrets, and rabbits.

Countries that are part of an international agreement on trade in endangered species agreed on Tuesday to limit the sale of wild elephants, delighting conservationists but dismaying some of the African countries involved. Burning rubbles in the market of Bouake, central Ivory Coast, after a fire broke overnight. A police officer prepares to strike a protester as clashes erupt during a pro-democracy march in Hong Kong's Kowloon Bay. Oxfam activists in costumes depicting leaders of the G7 nations protest in Biarritz, France on the day before the summit is due to be held there.

A vendor sits as she sells models of the Hindu deity Krishna on display at a roadside ahead of the 'Janmashtami' festival in Chennai. A masked dancer takes part in the Nil Barahi mask dance festival, an annual event during which dancers perform while posing as various deities that people worship to seek blessings, in Bode, Nepal.

Protesters take to the street to face off with Indonesian police in Manokwari, Papua. The riots broke out, with a local parliament building being torched, as thousands protested allegations that police tear-gassed and arrested students who supported the restive region's independence. People survey the destruction after an overnight suicide bomb explosion that targeted a wedding reception in Kabul, Afghanistan. At least 63 people, mostly wedding guests from the Shi'ite Muslim community, were killed and more than injured when a suicide bomber attacked a wedding hall.

A man retrieves his prize after climbing up a greased pole during a competition held as part of Independence Day celebrations at Ancol Beach in Jakarta. Indonesia is celebrating its 74th anniversary of independence from the Dutch colonial rule. Swiss pianist and composer Alain Roche plays piano suspended in the air at dawn during the 20th "Jeux du Castrum", a multidisciplinary festival in Switzerland.

A woman walks with a Kashmir's flag to express solidarity with the people of Kashmir, during a ceremony to celebrate Pakistan's 72nd Independence Day at the Mausoleum of Muhammad Ali Jinnah in Karachi, Pakistan. The extraordinary moment a volcano erupted, shooting luminous hot lava from the surface, as a lightning bolt striked the centre of the mountain.

Photographer Martin Reitze, 55, captured rare images of volcanic ash escaping from the Ebeko volcano in Russia whilst the lightning froze the ash cloud in time. Martin, from Munich, was standing around a kilometre away from the northern crater of the volcano when it erupted. The volcano expert said: "The strong lightning which shows in the image is a very rare exception, as it was much stronger than usual.

Foreign relations of the Soviet Union

People swim in a public bath pool in Zalakaros, Hungary. Some regions of the country have been issued the highest grade of warning by the National Meteorological Service as the temperatures may reach centigrade. A pro-democracy protester is held by police outside Tsim Sha Tsui Police station during a demonstration against the controversial extradition bill in Hong Kong. Muslim pilgrims make their way down on a rocky hill known as Mountain of Mercy, on the Plain of Arafat, during the annual hajj pilgrimage, near the holy city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

Waves hit a sea wall in front of buildings in Taizhou, China's eastern Zhejiang province. China issued a red alert for incoming Super Typhoon Lekima which is expected to batter eastern Zhejiang province early on August 10 with high winds and torrential rainfall. A herder struggles with his flock across a motorway at the city cattle market, ahead of the Eid al-Adha in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

Eid al-Adha is the holiest of the two Muslims holidays celebrated each year, it marks the yearly Muslim pilgrimage Hajj to visit Mecca, the holiest place in Islam. Muslims slaughter a sacrificial animal and split the meat into three parts, one for the family, one for friends and relatives, and one for the poor and needy. Kazakh servicemen perform during a ceremony opening the International Army Games at the 40th military base Otar in Zhambyl Region, Kazakhstan.

After a month-long tour of Europe, Trix is home in time for the opening of the new museum. Flowers paying tribute to the eight-year-old boy who died after he was pushed under a train at Frankfurt am Main's station. The horrific crime happened last week and has led politicians to call for heightened security. Mourners take part in a vigil near the border fence between Mexico and the US after a mass shooting at a Walmart store in El Paso killed 20 people.